A metaanalytical review also found support for the relationship between psychological contract violations and negative emotional responses (Zhao et al., 2007) and additional research supported metaanalytical findings (Suazo, 2009). An example of a failed psychological contract may be when an employee feels that overtime is naturally rewarded. However, this may not be the company`s policy. If the employee is paid, he or she may not be paid extra for the overtime he or she invests. The manager may not be aware that these additional miles were in the hope of a future valuation. This is an example of a case where there is a waiting gap between an employee and an employer. The term “contract” (lowercase “c”) in the context of communication is not yet clearly defined and generally does not refer to the psychological contract. As discussed below, “procurement” generally refers specifically to the “agreement of mutual expectations” in the context of transactional analysis (a specialized therapeutic or coaching/consultation methodology) and perhaps also in other forms of therapy. (THE “Contracting” TA is specifically described in modern TA theory.) Leaders have always focused on customer loyalty.
Increasingly, they will also need to focus on employee retention. A new generation of workers has grown up without the expectation of a job for life. They seek variety and change where their parents sought routine and safety. In addition, they have access to and control essential modern technologies that will evolve for the benefit of the individual rather than the organization. Research also provides evidence that many employees experience a psychological contract violation several years after starting work (Conway and Briner, 2005), and research shows that this violation negatively affects employee productivity and retention (Robinson, 1996). Useful – for employers who have a positive approach to the psychological contract – people`s needs at work tend to be reduced and simplified when the psychological contract is healthy. We see a “virtuous circle.” The term “psychological contract” refers to the expectations, beliefs, ambitions and obligations of the individual as perceived by the employer and the employee. The concept was born in the early 1960s and is at the heart of understanding the employment relationship. Based on knowledge of psychology and organizational behavior, it provides employers with a strong reason to pay attention to the “human” side of the working relationship. Although the concept of psychological contract describes the expectations of employers and employees, the concept has been studied primarily from the employee`s point of view.
A psychological contract between an employee and an employer works in the same way – for this relationship to thrive in the long run, both parties must feel that it is balanced and that their contribution is fair. These contracts are more relational than contractual in nature: they are based on the principle of mutual obligations and are not expressly guaranteed by the employer (unlike the employment contract). Violations of the psychological contract by an employer are not always avoidable. External factors such as the negative economic outlook can affect the agreement between the company and its employees. However, companies can avoid many negative outcomes if they are fair in managing the situation, even if they can`t promise positive results for everyone. For more information, see our report Entitled to the Changing Contours of Equity. The psychological contract was identified by Argyris in 1960. However, it is only in the last ten to fifteen years that it has become more popular and more research has been done on this topic.  As industrial relations studies evolved and became more complex, it became clear that workers were more likely to achieve better outcomes in certain workplaces.
Frederick Winslow Taylor`s early work focused on how to improve employee efficiency. Based on this, Douglas McGregor developed theory X and theory Y to define two opposing types of management styles, each effective in achieving a particular goal. These different types of management have different psychological contracts between the employer and the employee, as described in more detail under “Formation of the psychological contract”. For this reason, it is crucial for HR departments to closely monitor individual and collective expectations between employees and employers. There is still no broad appreciation of “psychological contracts” and “shrinkages” in society and human behavior outside of employee-employer relationships. There should be. In addition, due to globalization and changes in the workplace, employees are expected to spend more time and effort, but tend to receive less in terms of career opportunities and job security (Maslach, Schaufeli and Leiter, 2001). This breach of the psychological contract can lead to burnout, as it calls into question the mutual agreement between the employer and the employee (Maslach et al., 2001). Completing this section will contribute to your ability to understand the meaning of the psychological contract and the problems that can arise if it is not clearly understood or reconciled. The quality of the psychological assignment strongly influences the daily behavior of employees.
When employees perceive that the contributions they make to the organization and what they receive from the employer are balanced, it can lead to positive results. For example, employees who perform better, exhibit more extracurricular behaviors, and display a higher level of commitment to the organization. See more of our employment management resources. As mentioned earlier, what constitutes the “contract” may vary depending on the unique needs and aspirations of each employee, but that does not mean that an organization should try to meet the tacit expectations of each employee. Individual psychological contracts allow the employee to see their value and role within the company. It also helps both parties avoid unrealistic expectations of each other. And it allows the “change” of the terms of the contract if necessary, which is done through regular communication. The psychological contract, by definition, represents the understanding of mutual expectations between employees and employers. This relationship is also made up of many other expectations that, while not fully formalized, are equally important. While an employment contract is a legal agreement printed on paper, the psychological contract relies on the daily actions, statements and promises on one side of the relationship and how they are received by the other. There are several factors that affect psychological contracts, such as (Rousseau, 2001) An additional complication is the variation in expectations between individuals that we have seen before. .